By Walter Focke, Mthokozisi Sibanda and Taneshka Kruger provided by The Conversation Long-lasting insecticide treated nets and indoor spraying are the main malaria vector control interventions recommended by the World Health Organisation. Both target mosquitoes that feed indoors.
Smells can be compelling, and many animals use them quite deliberately as a means of communicating. When conflict arises between these animals and humans, we have developed ingenious ways to weaponise these signals and turn them against the offending animal.
Modern medicine is very interested in this this biotechnological opportunity, sometimes called biosurgery, which has been effective in healing diabetic sores, skin ulcers, burns, gangrene, osteomyelitis and related chronic conditions that have resisted other standard contemporary medical procedures.
The Common Ringed Plovers that reach southern Africa breed in the same area as the Red Knot, but their range extends to the extreme eastern end of Russia. It reaches us through the Middle East, and must cross the Sahara. The birds from the far east of Russia fly to Africa (there are no recoveries of ringed birds to prove this, but there is nowhere else they can go, says the ADU's Prof Les Underhill). Of all long-distance migrants apart from seabirds, these birds migrate the farthest.
In a new study of cichlid fish descended from others caught in East Africa's Lake Tanganika, scientists have made some surprising observations about how those animals respond to changes in their environments known as "social opportunities." Dr. Sabrina S. Burmeister, assistant professor of biology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's College of Arts and Sciences, and colleagues found that subordinate male fish underwent a radical and rapid transformation when more dominant males were removed.